The Ordinance on Requirements for the Recovery and Disposal of Waste Wood (AltholzV) regulates the recovery and disposal of waste wood in the Federal Republic of Germany. It defines waste wood as industrial waste wood and used wood if it is waste according to the definition of the Closed Substance Cycle Waste Management Act (KrWG). The Waste Wood Ordinance came into force on 1 March 2003 and was published in the Federal Law Gazette on 23 August 2002.
Environmental label for particularly environmentally friendly products and services, introduced in Germany in 1978. In the case of chipboard, formaldehyde emission is an important criterion for the award of the Blue Angel. For boards which, due to so-called formaldehyde scavengers, have an approx. 50 % lower emission than standard boards, the environmental label RAL UZ 76 - Blue Angel is awarded because they are low-emission. The panels are certified by the RAL Institute for the award of this eco-label.
BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Methodology) is an assessment system originally from Great Britain for ecological and socio-cultural aspects of the sustainability of buildings. It was first published by Building Research Establishment (BRE) in 1990. The system was developed by a British research institute. More than 250,000 buildings are certified by BREEAM and over 1 million are registered for certification, mostly in the UK and more than 50 other countries.
The California Air Resources Board (CARB) is a governmental commission of the State of California of the United States. The advisory body, which has been in existence since 1967, is internationally renowned for its particularly stringent air pollution control legislation. CARB II is part of the US standard "California's Composite Wood Products Regulation", in force since 2010, and sets the maximum permissible value for formaldehyde emissions from wood-based materials. The CARB II class stands for an evaporation value of less than 0.005 %. The formaldehyde content may not exceed 0.05 ppm (parts per million) in the test chamber.
Carbon is a chemical element. It occurs in nature both in pure form (diamond, graphite, chaoite) and chemically bound (e.g. in the form of carbides, carbonates, carbon dioxide, petroleum, natural gas and coal) and has the ability to form complex molecules. Carbon occurs in the air as carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is produced during the combustion of carbon-containing compounds, during respiration and volcanic activity and is utilised by photosynthesis in plants (cf. CO2).
Cascade utilisation is the multiple use of a raw material over several stages.
By means of multiple, serially connected material recycling with subsequent energy recovery, raw materials or products made from them are used as long as possible in the economic system. This leads to a significantly increased ecologically and economically sensible resource efficiency.
The product chain (Chain of Custody) documents the flow of materials and raw materials through several stations to the final product. It is important for the certification of raw materials and their traceability. To ensure that an end product actually meets the requirements of the standard, certification initiatives track the flow of materials throughout the product chain.
The CE label (CE for Community of Europe = French for European Community) is not a seal of quality. The manufacturer, marketer or an authorised representative of the EU merely declares in accordance with EU regulation 765/2008 that he is aware of the special requirements for the product he sells and that it complies with these requirements. If the conformity of the product has been assessed and confirmed by a notified body, the labelling contains the four-digit identification number of the relevant body in addition to the CE label. It is obligatory to affix it to those construction products for which the manufacturer has drawn up a declaration of performance and accordingly stands for the conformity of the product with the declared performance.
Chipboards are panel shaped wood-based materials. They usually consist of wood shavings which are pressed into panel-shaped materials with the aid of binding agents. High-quality chipboards usually have three to five layers of different chip composition from rough to fine. They are available raw or with different surface finishes (melamine, laminate, real wood veneers). Chipboard is very versatile; in furniture construction it is the most important carrier and construction material.
Combined heat and power (CHP) is the simultaneous generation of mechanical energy and usable heat, which are produced in a common thermodynamic process. The mechanical energy is usually converted directly into electrical power. The heat is used for heating purposes or for production processes as process heat. Combined heat and power generation allows fuel savings of up to one third of the primary energy compared to the separate generation of electricity and heat. The advantage of cogeneration is the reduced fuel requirement for the simultaneous supply of electricity and heat, which greatly reduces pollutant emissions.
The circular economy is a regenerative system in which resource use and waste production, emissions and energy waste are minimised by slowing, reducing and closing energy and material cycles; this can be achieved through durable design, maintenance, repair, reuse, remanufacturing, refurbishing and recycling.
Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound of carbon and oxygen with the molecular formula CO2, an incombustible, acidic and colourless gas; it dissolves well in water: here it is often called "sparkling acid" in common language, especially in connection with drinks containing carbon dioxide.
CO2 is an important part of the global carbon cycle and, as a natural component of the air, is an important greenhouse gas in the earth's atmosphere: as a result of human activities, especially the burning of fossil fuels, its share in the earth's atmosphere rose from around 280 parts per million (ppm, parts per million) at the beginning of industrialisation to 407.8 ppm in 2018. In May 2019, a monthly average of around 415 ppm was measured at the Mauna Loa NOAA measuring station in Hawaii, and the trend is still rising.
This increase causes the greenhouse effect to intensify, which in turn is the cause of the current global warming. Every day, about 100 million tonnes of carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere by human activities (status 2020). Plants and photosynthetic bacteria absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it into carbohydrates such as glucose (carbon sequestration) through photosynthesis under the influence of light and absorption of water, while a large proportion of the oxygen is returned to the atmosphere
A combined heat and power unit (CHP) is a modular system for the generation of electrical energy and heat, which is preferably operated at the place of heat consumption. It uses the principle of combined heat and power generation (CHP).
Cradle to Cradle (C2C) is an approach to a continuous and consistent recycling management. The principle, which can also be perceived as a philosophy or system, was designed by the German chemist Michael Braungart and the US-American architect William McDonough in the late 1990s. The C2C certification (Cradle to Cradle Certified Product Standard) for recycling management systems has been awarded by the non-profit organisation Cradle to Cradle Products Innovation Institute based in San Francisco since 2010. Products are evaluated in terms of material health, recyclability, use of renewable energies, responsible use of water and social justice.
The German Sustainable Building Council (DGNB) is a non-profit and non-governmental organisation whose task is to develop and promote ways and solutions for sustainable planning, construction and use of buildings. Its work focuses on the establishment and expansion of a certification system for sustainable buildings and the award of a certificate in the gold, silver and bronze quality levels.
The German Institute for Building Technology (DIBt) is a technical authority in the building sector. Its most important task is the approval of non-regulated construction products and types of construction. Our DIBt report confirms for LivingBoard "...the compliance with the requirements for structural installations with regard to health protection (ABG) according to MVV TB 2017/1, Annex 8...", or more simply stated: Wood and interior finishing with LivingBoard ensures a healthy building for living and meets the legal requirements.
DIN stands for Deutsches Institut für Normung e. V. and is the national standards organisation of the Federal Republic of Germany with its headquarters in Berlin. Standards serve the purpose of rationalisation, communication, usability, quality assurance, compatibility, interchangeability, health, safety and environmental protection.
Construction standard of the Technical Committee CEN/TC 112 "Wood-based panels" for melamine-faced panels for interior use. The standard specifies the surface requirements and dimensional tolerances for such panels.
Construction standard of the committee NA 042-02.15 AA "Wood-based panels – Mirror committee to CEN/TC 112 and ISO/TC 89" for uncoated, resin-bonded chipboards. The standard distinguishes seven types of boards: P1 - P3 for general and non-load-bearing purposes and P4 - P7 for structural and stiffening purposes.
European standard that specifies the requirements for different types of panels of high-pressure decorative laminates (HPL).
Developed by the Building Standards Committee (NABau) and the Working Committee "Fire behaviour of building materials and components – building materials". The classification of building materials according to their fire behaviour or flammability is carried out in Germany according to DIN 4102 part 1 in five building material classes (partly also called flammability classes or erroneously called fire classes).
The determination of formaldehyde emissions is divided into emission classes. Emission classes provide information on the level of formaldehyde emission. Class E1 stands for an evaporation value of less than 0.01 %. The formaldehyde content in the test chamber must not exceed 0.1 ppm (parts per million).
The determination of formaldehyde emissions is divided into emission classes. Emission classes provide information on the level of formaldehyde outgassing. Class E05 is a new, strict standard for formaldehyde emissions from wood-based materials, which came into force exclusively in Germany on 1 January 2020. The formaldehyde content may not exceed 0.05 ppm (parts per million) in the test chamber.
The Ordinance on Specialist Waste Management Companies (EfbV) sets out the requirements for organisations that collect, transport, store, treat, recycle, dispose of or trade in waste as specialist waste management companies. The requirements include the organisation and equipment of the company as well as the technical qualification of the management and personnel.
The Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) covers the product life cycle from production to use and disposal of the product. An EPD thus provides quantified environmental information from the life cycle of a product in order to enable comparisons between products with the same function.
The strict Japanese standard F**** (F Four Star) places the highest demands on formaldehyde emissions from wood-based materials. Class F**** stands for an emission value of less than 0.002 %. The formaldehyde content may not exceed 0.03 ppm (parts per million) in the test chamber.
Formaldehyde is a colourless gas which is noticeable by its acidic and sharp smell. The substance occurs in the environment in many different ways, for example it is produced in the human body and is contained as a natural substance in wood. Formaldehyde is one of the best-known indoor air pollutants. In the case of chipboard and other wood-based materials, the substance is usually formed by the reaction of adhesives or binders with water. However, since formaldehyde does not bond completely, a small part is released into the indoor air. Glued products in interior and furniture construction are among the most important sources of formaldehyde in the air. Under normal conditions, high-quality processed wood-based materials do not cause any health risks.
Irritations and health hazards due to emissions from formaldehyde-containing products such as wood-based materials led to the definition of guideline values and legal emission limits in the 70's and 80's. Currently we can offer carriers according to the following limits: E1/E05, CARB II/TSCA Title VI, F****, F0.
The Forest Stewardship Council® (FSC) is a global, not-for-profit organization dedicated to the promotion of responsible forest management worlwide. FSC defines standards based on agreed principles for responsible forest stewardship that are supported by environmental, social and economic stakeholders. To learn more, visit www.fsc.org.
The Forest Stewardship Council® is an internation nongovernmental otganization that promotes environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial and economically viable management of the world's forests. To learn more, visit www.fsc.org.
FSC® is dedicated to the promotion of responsible forest management world wide.
FSC® helps take care of forests for future generations.
FSC® helps take care of forests and the people and wildlife that call them home.
High-density fibreboard (HDF) is a fibreboard that has been compressed to a particularly high density (density over 800 kg/m³). They are preferably used as a carrier material for high loads with low material thickness, for example for laminate flooring and vinyl flooring.
High Pressure Laminate – or HPL for short – is a decorative high-quality laminate. It consists of a melamine-treated decorative paper layer and several core paper layers impregnated with phenolic resin, which are pressed together under high pressure. The resulting material is very hard-wearing, impact-resistant, temperature-resistant, and easy to clean. This makes HPL an ideal surface material for areas of application in which high stress, durability and hygiene requirements go hand in hand with high design standards.
Hot coating is a patent-protected process in which products such as furniture, interior design and façade panels are refined by means of melt coating. Hot coating is an emission and solvent-free product which, in contrast to conventional coating, gives the surfaces refined in this way a warm character and enables exceptional matt and gloss effects as well as smart product properties. Hot coating can even be used outdoors.
HPL compact panels are decorative high-pressure laminates according to EN 438 in thicknesses of more than 2 mm. They consist of several core layers and decorative surface layers on both sides, which are impregnated with thermosetting resins and joined together by a high-pressure process. The boards have a decorative, very resistant surface and homogeneous, closed cut edges. As a self-supporting material, HPL compact panels are used in interior design and furniture, especially in wet and humid areas, but also wherever a special robustness of the material is required. Outdoors, they are used, for example, as garden furniture, privacy screens, façades and balcony cladding.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations and is charged with promoting social justice, human rights and labour rights. This includes the fight against human trade.
The "International Organization for Standardization" – ISO for short – is the international association of standardization organizations and develops international standards in all areas except electrical and electronic engineering.
Quality management standard that describes the requirements for an organisation's quality management system that must be met in order to provide products and services that meet customer expectations and regulatory requirements. At the same time, the management system should be subject to a continuous improvement process. The proof is provided in a certification process with audits by independent certification bodies. The subsequently issued certificate is issued for a limited period of time.
Environmental management standard that defines globally recognised requirements for an environmental management system. It focuses on the continuous improvement process as a tool for achieving the defined environmental performance objectives of an organisation according to the method "Plan, Execute, Control, Optimise".
The new international standard ISO 38200 sets out requirements for a chain of custody for wood and wood products, cork and woody materials such as bamboo, and their products. This is not a private chain of custody standard, but an ISO standard that is valid and recognised worldwide. It is about ensuring the traceability of wood or wood-based products and proving their origin and legality.
Occupational health and safety management standard that defines the requirements for the occupational health and safety management system of an organisation. The main focus is on preventing accidents at work and work-related injuries and illnesses, and generally protecting the health of employees at work. ISO 45001 was published in March 2018 and replaces the Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OHSAS 18001).
Energy management standard that describes the requirements for the energy management system of an organisation. It focuses on the continuous improvement of energy-related performance, i.e. the optimisation of energy use and energy efficiency.
Emission class of the Japan Industrial Standard (the Japanese equivalent of the DIN standard), which sets even stricter requirements than the E1 emission class. Products certified according to JIS A 5905 F**** emit around two thirds less formaldehyde into the room air. Pfleiderer is the first European manufacturer of engineered wood to receive this certification for its raw particleboard and medium density fibreboard.
LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) is the world's most widespread seal of approval for environmentally friendly buildings, said the US Green Building Council (USGBC), which awards LEED certification.
The certification system is based on a catalogue of requirements in which points are to be achieved in various subject areas: Water efficiency, energy & atmosphere, materials & resources, indoor environmental quality and innovation & design process, four different LEED plaques can be achieved: Basic certification (Certified), Silver, Gold and Platinum.
Lost time accident frequency rate refers to a rate of absence from work in relation to the hours worked. FR1 stands for the lost time rate at 1 million hours, FR2 for the rate at 200,000 working hours.
In melamine resin direct coating, i.e. the production of melamine-faced wood-based panels, resin impregnated papers are applied under pressure and heat directly to a carrier board without the use of an additional adhesive. Embossed press plates provide the surfaces with a structure. Melamine-faced boards are preferably used in furniture, shop and interior design. They have a decorative surface that is durable, food safe and resistant to a variety of chemical substances. The European Standard EN 14322 defines the material, requirements and properties of melamine resin direct coated panels.
Melamine resins (melamine-formaldehyde condensation resins, DIN abbreviation: MF) are synthetic resins based on the compounds melamine and formaldehyde and belong to the aminoplasts. After curing, the resins form duroplastic polymers. Besides the classical melamine-formaldehyde condensation resins, modified melamine resins are also produced, such as melamine-phenol-formaldehyde resins (DIN abbreviation: MPF) and melamine-urea-formaldehyde resins (DIN abbreviation: MUF).
Medium density fibreboards are panels of wood-based materials. They consist of finely defibrated wood, which is pressed with binders to form a wood-based material that is homogeneous in both longitudinal and transverse direction. With their good profiling properties, smooth density distribution and excellent surface smoothness, MDF boards are ideal for high-quality furniture and interior design.
The Nordic Ecolabel, also known as the Nordic Swan or in Scandinavia "The Swan" for short, is an eco-label awarded by the Nordic Council of Ministers. It was launched in 1989 and now covers 63 product groups. It is the official eco-label of the Nordic countries. The Nordic Swan is a Type I eco-label (ISO 14024), as a statement about the environmental performance of products compared to competing products is made by independent third parties. Every three to five years, the respective criteria are reviewed and revised if necessary.
See DIN EN 312
The English expression parts per million (ppm) stands for the number 10-6 and is used in science for the millionth part, just as percent (%) stands for the number 10-2 for the hundredth part. For wood-based materials, the term is related to formaldehyde measurement and the definition of emission classes. In Germany, only wood-based materials with at least emission class 0.5 (E05) may be produced and sold. The formaldehyde content may not exceed 0.05 ppm in the test chamber.
The PDCA cycle describes the four-stage control loop of the Continuous Improvement Process: Plan, Do, Check, Act. It is also called Deming Cycle, Deming Wheel or Shewhart Cycle.
PEFC is the largest institution for ensuring sustainable forest management through an independent certification system. Wood and wood products bearing the PEFC label are proven to originate from ecologically, economically and socially sustainable forestry. PEFC Deutschland e.V. was founded in 1999 and develops the standards and procedures for certification, provides information to the public and grants the rights to the PEFC logo in Germany. PEFC is the most important forest certification system in Germany: with 7.5 million hectares of certified forest area, around two thirds of German forests are already PEFC-certified. PEFC is a transparent and independent system for ensuring sustainable forest management and thus a kind of global "forest MOT". The abbreviation PEFC stands for "Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification Schemes". Forest certification according to PEFC standards is based on strict guidelines for the sustainable management of forests. This management is controlled by competent and independent organisations. If a product made of wood bears the PEFC seal, this means that the entire product manufacturing process - from the raw material to the ready-to-use end product - is certified and controlled by independent experts. With products bearing the PEFC seal, you can be sure that they come from sustainably managed forests. Sustainable forest management means, for example:
- No more wood is felled than will grow back.
- Where trees have been felled, they are replanted.
- The forest remains a safe habitat for animals and plants.
- The diversity of species in the forest is preserved.
- A sustainably managed forest retains its function as a natural protector of water bodies, soils and climate.
- You have the guarantee of the legal origin of the raw material wood.
- The high standards of occupational safety are observed in all forest work.
- Workers' rights are respected.
- The rights of the people who live from and/or depend on the forest (for example, forest farmers or also primitive peoples in South America) are safeguarded.
We receive post-consumer material after recycling by our partners or our own processing in the Neumarkt plant. These are processed residues from wood processing, furniture and interior design and construction applications (timber construction, packaging and formwork construction) as well as reused products according to their life cycle. The processing of all recycled wood is carried out in accordance with the Waste Wood Ordinance, and we only use material of the highest quality classes A1 and A2 (natural or mechanically processed waste wood that is practically uncontaminated) for production.
Phenolic resins (PF resins, phenol-formaldehyde resins) are the starting material for the production of phenoplastics (DIN abbreviation: PF), duroplastic polymers, which are obtained by curing and belong to the most important duroplastics due to their temperature resistance and surface hardness. We use them for the production of decorative coatings.
Polyurethanes (abbreviation PUR; in linguistic usage also PU) are plastics or synthetic resins. The properties of PU can be varied within a wide range. Polyurethanes are therefore used, for example, as casting resins (isocyanate resins), as polyurethane coatings and as polyurethane adhesives.
Pre-consumer material is the sawing waste from the production of bars and planks or panels in sawmills. Chips and sawdust accumulate as waste products in the local production process and are recycled by us.
The Quality Association for Wood-based Materials (QG HWS) awards the "Wood-based Materials Quality Label" to products from manufacturers of chipboard and fibreboard, plywood and wood-polymer materials which meet the high standards of the Community. On behalf of a notified body accredited and notified according to the Building Products Ordinance (BauPVO), QG HWS carries out selected tests and inspections in the field of building inspection according to the procedure defined for this purpose (QM system), in particular the monitoring of the factory production control according to the harmonised standard DIN EN 13986 in the currently valid version. The quality and testing regulations laid down by QG HWS are binding for its members. They are continuously controlled by the manufacturers and by external test centres. This ensures that the products monitored by QG HWS are of good quality, durable and safe and do not endanger the health of people and the environment.
In recycling or waste recovery, waste products are reused or their source materials become secondary raw materials. "Recycling" is defined as "any recovery operation by which waste is transformed into products, materials or substances either for the original purpose or for other purposes". The law only refers to "recycling" if the raw material was previously classified as "waste", otherwise it is "re-use". The colloquial use of the term recycling often covers both meanings.
Residual wood is defined as the wood residues from primary production, which arise from felling in the forest, the processing of wood in industry, construction and mining. They include forest residues (thinning wood) and industrial residues, untreated wood residues from construction sites, mines (scaffolding boards, support material, etc.). This can be further processed without any problems.
The Safety and Quality Assessment System is a standard of the European Chemical Industry Council for assessing the quality, safety, and environmental compatibility of logistics service providers.
Sustainability in forestry refers to a principle of action for the use of resources which focuses on preserving the essential characteristics, stability and natural regeneration capacity of the forest. This forestry principle of action was first formulated for forestry, which developed at the beginning of the 18th century as a result of excessive forest destruction, but was already practised regionally in the 15th century for the same reason.
Thinning wood is the term used to describe wood residues from primary production, which arise during felling and maintenance in the forest – trees felled for forest maintenance, as well as branches, rinds and end pieces that are cut off after felling, and broken wood that must be processed quickly after storms or breakage due to snow load. This wood accumulates during work in the forest and is purchased by us for the production of wood-based materials instead of being burnt.
"Tone from the top" is a term originating in the accounting field and is used to describe the general ethical climate of an organisation as determined by its board, audit committee and management. Having a good tone from the top is seen by business ethics experts as a contribution to the prevention of fraud and other unethical practices.
Regulations on formaldehyde emissions from wood-based materials in the USA, which complement the Toxic Substances Control Act enacted in 2016. TSCA VI sets limits for formaldehyde emissions from hardwood plywood (0.05 ppm), medium density fibreboard (0.11 ppm), thin MDF (0.13 ppm), particleboard (0.09 ppm) and all finished products made from these materials.
Urea resins are aminoplastics (plastics) which can be hardened chemically or thermally. We use urea resin as impregnating resins for our decorative coatings.
Ultraviolet radiation, or UV, UV radiation, UV light or black light, is electromagnetic radiation in the optical frequency range (light) with shorter wavelengths than the light visible to humans. "Ultraviolet" means "beyond violet"; violet is the colour stimulus of the shortest wavelength still visible. In black-light lamps, the accompanying proportion of visible radiation is largely suppressed by a filter so that essentially only fluorescent substances light up in a scene illuminated by it.
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is the collective term for organic, i.e. carbon-containing substances that change into the gas phase at room temperature or at higher temperatures through evaporation (colloquially "evaporation"), i.e. are volatile.
The Regulation divides waste wood into categories which particularly determine the type of recovery or disposal:
Natural or mechanically processed waste wood, practically uncontaminated, e.g. solid wood furniture without glued panels.
➜ Material recycling for the production of new chipboard..
Glued, coated, varnished waste wood without halogen-organic compounds in the coating and without wood preservatives, e.g. glued wood panels, furniture without PVC content, interior doors, floorboards.
➜ Material recycling for the production of new chipboard.
Waste wood with halogen-organic compounds in the coating without wood preservatives, e.g. furniture with PVC edges or PVC coatings.
➜ Energy recovery only in plants approved for this purpose. Chipboard production only after cleaning.
Waste wood and waste wood treated with wood preservatives that cannot be assigned to categories A I, A II or A III due to its pollutant load, e.g. railway sleepers, pylons, rafters, windows, external doors, fences, wooden garden furniture.
➜ Energy recovery, production of synthesis gas and charcoal only in plants licensed for this purpose.
Waste PCB wood
Waste wood treated with agents containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
➜ Disposal of hazardous waste.
Building material class according to DIN 4102-1: B1 flame-retardant
Building material class according to DIN 4102-1: B1 normal flammability
Building material class according to DIN 4102-1: B1 highly flammable